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The Duke of Pastrana
Carreño de Miranda, Juan
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Carreño de Miranda, Juan

Avilés, Asturias (Spain), 1614 - Madrid (Spain), 1685

Carreño de Miranda, Juan See author's file

The Duke of Pastrana

Ca. 1679. Oil on canvas.
Room 016A

Here we are presented with a young man, elegantly dressed in black, standing within a landscape beside a horse whose mane is richly adorned with blue ribbons and bows. The man wears his hair very long, as was popular during the reign of Charles II, and carries a sword at his side. Hanging on his chest is a pendant with the cross of the Order of Saint James, which also appears prominently on his cape. In his right hand he holds a rod for breaking-in horses, an equestrian reference that is completed by the image of his servant bending over to adjust his master´s spurs and the groom that restrains the horse.The fact that this painting once belonged to the noble house of Osuna, together with the pictorial style that points to Juan Carreño de Miranda and the references to the Order of Saint James, allowed scholars Allende-Salazar and Sánchez Cantón to identify the sitter as Don Gregorio de Silva y Mendoza (1649-93), who was named Knight of the Order of Saint James in the year this portrait was probably painted. In 1676, Don Gregorio inherited his father´s title as the Duke of Pastrana and, a decade later, the duchy of the Infantado from his mother. (Subsequently the houses of Osuna and Infantado joined.) The appearance of a figure with similar features in Francisco Rizi´s Auto-de-fé on the Plaza Mayor in Madrid 1683 (P1126) confirms this identification. The painting is one of the best Spanish portraits from the last third of the seventeenth century. It is also among those that best reveal the extent to which sixteenth-century Venetian and seventeenth-century Flemish painting, as well as the works of Velázquez, were points of reference for the development of the genre in Spain. Antonio Palomino referred to the first two sources of inspiration in 1724 when he wrote of Carreño´s portraits: all of them were so like his sitters´ true appearance, that it was a miracle, indeed, of the supreme refinement with which Heaven endowed him, in his blend of Titian and Van Dyck, such that, by equalling both together, he surpassed them each alone.Indeed, the similarities between this portrait and Anthony van Dyck´s Charles I, King of England, at the hunt 1635 (Musée du Louvre, Paris), in which the king is also accompanied by servant, groom and horse, have frequently been remarked upon.As in the portrait by Van Dyck or in Bartolomé Esteban Murillo´s Marquis de Legarda in hunting dress c.1660 (private collection, Madrid), Carreño´s portrait reveals a subtle play of hierarchies: in contrast to the static, erect pose of the principal sitter, his servants are crouching down or bending slightly over, carrying out some action in the service of their lord.The significance of this work is ambiguous. The sitter´s location in an exterior scene that suggests hunting or some form of rustic exercise. Yet, far from being dressed for the hunt, the duke wears sumptuous court attire, and his horse is similarly adorned. It has been speculated that the portrait commemorates his marriage to Doña María Méndez de Haro, which took place in June 1666, when the duke was 17. It is more likely, however, to be a later work, which the apparent age of the sitter -somewhat beyond 17 years- and the style of painting both suggest. In contrast to Carreño´s portraits of the Marquis and Marchioness of Santa Cruz and of the Countess of Monterrey executed in the 1660s -in which the modelling of the figures and their relationship with their surroundings is more rigid- here, the perfect integration of the figures of the duke, his servants, the horse and the surrounding scenery all come together in a coherent whole. In this regard, the portrait is closer to works such as Carreño´s Charles II wearing the robes of the Order of the Golden Fleece 1677 (Harrach collection, Austria) or Pedro Ivanowitz Potemkin, Russian Ambassador c.1681 (P645).The gentleman and his mount are dressed for public presentation, which suggests that the work reflects some ceremonial act related to the court of Charles II. It is possible that the painting commemorates one of the most important events in Don Gregorio´s biography, which took place in 1679, when he was already duke: namely, his journey to Paris to deliver to Princess Marie Louise of Orléans a portrait of her future husband, Charles II of Spain.

Portrait of Spain. Masterpieces from The Prado, Queensland Art Gallery, 2012, p.104-105, nº13


Technical data

Inventory number
Carreño de Miranda, Juan
The Duke of Pastrana
Ca. 1679
Height: 217 cm; Width: 155 cm
House of Pastrana; Ducal House of Osuna, Madrid; acquired by the Ministry of Development for the Museo del Prado, 1896.

Bibliography +

Sentenach y Cabañas, Narciso, Catálogo de los cuadros, esculturas, grabados y otros objetos artísticos de la colección de la antigua Casa Ducal de Osuna, Viuda é Hijos de M. Tello, Madrid, 1896.

Sentenach, Narciso, Los grandes retratistas de España, Boletin de la Sociedad Española de Excursiones, 21, 1913.

Sentenach y Cabañas, Narciso, Los Grandes Retratistas en España, Hauser y Menet, Madrid, 1914, pp. 101.

Allende-Salazar, Juan., Retratos del Museo del Prado: identificación y rectificaciones, Julio Cosano, 1919, pp. 242-244.

Berjano Escobar, Daniel, El pintor D. Juan Carreño de Miranda (1614-1685). Su vida y obra., Mateu Artes Gráficas, 1924, pp. 146.

Mayer, August L., Historia de la Pintura Española, Espasa Calpe, Madrid, 1928, pp. 430.

Paris, Pierre, La peinture espagnole depuis les origines jusqu'au debut du, Les Éditions G. Van Oest, Paris.Bruselas, 1928, pp. lám. LIII.

Arteaga y Falguera, Cristina de, La Casa del Infantado, Cabeza de los Mendoza, II, Duque del Infantado, Madrid, 1944, pp. 508.

Araujo, L., La escuela de Madrid, Boletin de la Sociedad Española de Excursiones, 49, 1945, pp. 256.

Benet, Rafael, Antonio Viladomat: la figura y el arte del pintor barcelonés, Iberia, Madrid.Cuenca, 1946.

Ars hispaniae: historia universal del arte hispánico, Plus Ultra, Madrid, 1971, pp. 280.

Salas, Xavier de, Museo del Prado. Catálogo de las pinturas, Museo del Prado, Madrid, 1972.

Checa Cremades, Fernando, El arte y los sistemas visuales: el barroco, ISTMO, Madrid, 1982, pp. 293.

Aguilar Olivencia, Mariano, El Palacio de Buenavista. Vol. I, [s.n], Madrid, 1984, pp. 31.

Museo Nacional del Prado, Catálogo de las pinturas, Museo del Prado, Madrid, 1985, pp. 133-134.

Pérez Sánchez, Alfonso E. (1935-2010)), Juan Carreño de Miranda : 1614-1685 /, Ayuntamiento.Ministerio de Cultura, 1985, pp. 68-69.

Pérez Sánchez, Alfonso E. (1935-2010)), Juan Carreño de Miranda : 1614-1685 /, Ayuntamiento.Ministerio de Cultura, Avilés, 1985, pp. 92.

Sullivan, Edward J., Baroque painting in Madrid: the contribution of Claudio Coello, University of Missouri Press, Columbia, 1986, pp. 11/lám. 8.

De Greco à Picasso, Ministerio de Cultura, Madrid, 1987.

Sullivan, Edward J., Claudio Coello y la pintura barroca madrileña, Nerea, Madrid, 1989, pp. 32/lám. 8.

Ayala Mallory, Nina, Del Greco a Murillo: la pintura española del Siglo de Oro, Alianza Forma, 104, Madrid, 1991, pp. 187/lám. 162.

Alberti, R., Mirar un cuadro en el Museo del Prado, R.T.V.E. y Lunwerg Editores, Madrid, 1991, pp. 182-186.

La Pintura Española, Electa, Milán, 1995, pp. 367/lám. 443.

Museo Nacional del Prado, Museo del Prado: inventario general de pinturas, III, Museo del Prado, Espasa Calpe, Madrid, 1996, pp. nº1235.

Brown, Jonathan, Painting in Spain 1500-1700, Yale University Press, Yale, 1998, pp. 239.

Mil Años del Caballo en el Arte Hispanico, Sociedad Estatal España Nuevo Milen, Madrid, 2001, pp. 217-19, nº 48.

Museo Nacional del Prado, Pintura barroca española: guía, Museo Nacional del PradoAldeasa, Madrid, 2001, pp. 152.

Portús Pérez, Javier, La colección de pintura española en el Museo del Prado, Edilupa, Madrid, 2003, pp. 148.

Museo Nacional del Prado, El retrato español: del Greco a Picasso, Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid, 2004, pp. 348.

Checa Cremades, Fernando, Velazquez, Bernini, Luca Giordano : Le Corti del Barocco, Skira, Milano, 2004, pp. 247.

Enciclopedia del Museo del Prado, III, T.F. Editores: Fundación Amigos, Madrid, 2006, pp. 971.

López Vizcaíno, Pilar, Juan Carreño de Miranda: vida y obra, Ángel Mario Carreño, Oviedo, 2007, pp. 366.

Bass, Laura R., The drama of the portrait: theater and visual culture in early modern Spain, Pennsylvania State University Press, 2008, pp. 123.

Souto, J.L. Sancho, J.L, El primer retrato del rey Carlos II: una composición alegórica dibujada por Herrera Barnuevo. Precisiones sobre la iconografía regia en la Corte del último Austria., Reales Sitios, Imp. Raycar, 2010.

Portrait of Spain. Masterpieces from The Prado, Queensland Art Gallery, 2012, pp. 104-105, nº13.

Portús Pérez, Javier, Juan Carreño y la decadencia de la pintura española, Fundación Amigos Museo del Prado, Madrid, 2013, pp. 291-313 [300].

Navarrete, Benito, Carreño de Miranda en el Museo de Bellas Artes de Asturias, Museo de Bellas Artes de Asturias, 2015, pp. 28 f.15.

Other inventories +

Catálogo Museo del Prado, 1872-1907. Núm. 2149cc.

Inv. Nuevas Adquisiciones (iniciado en 1856). Núm. 1235.
Autor Don Juan Carreño Miranda / 1235. Retrato de un caballero de Santiago de tiempos de Carlos 2º / Alto ancho / 2,17 1,55 / Adquirido por el Estado procedente de la Casa de Osuna. / Real Orden 27 mayo 1896

Exhibitions +

Portrait of Spain. Masterpieces from the Prado
16.12.2012 - 31.03.2013

Portrait of Spain. Masterpieces from the Prado
Houston TX
15.12.2012 - 31.03.2013

Portrait of Spain. Masterpieces from the Prado
22.07.2012 - 04.11.2012

Portrait of Spain. Masterpieces from the Prado
Brisbane, Australia
21.07.2012 - 04.11.2012

The Spanish Portrait: From El Greco to Picasso
20.10.2004 - 06.02.2005

Bernini, Velázquez, Luca Giordano. Le Corti del Barocco - Cortes del Barroco
12.02.2004 - 02.05.2004

Mil años del caballo en el arte hispánico
15.03.2001 - 30.05.2001

Cinco Siglos de Arte Español
05.10.1987 - 05.01.1988

Location +

Room 016A (On Display)


Displayed objects +


Order of Saint James: Exhibe en su pecho y en la capa la Cruz de Santiago


Update date: 26-05-2022 | Registry created on 28-04-2015

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