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Two of a Kind
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de
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Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de

Fuendetodos, Zaragoza (Spain), 1746 - Bordeaux (France), 1828

Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de See author's file

Two of a Kind

1797 - 1799. Etching, Aquatint, Drypoint on ivory laid paper. Not on display

Capricho 5, Two of a Kind is part of The Caprichos. The subject matter was common in depictions of that period. At first glance, the preparatory drawing might seem to be a simple genre scene—a lady being courted by a gentleman while two older women converse behind them—but the upper-class appearance of both the woman’s clothing (a mantilla and black shawl, a silk lace garment covering her head and shoulders; and a long, pleated skirt), and that of her suitor (a frock-coat, hat and short sword), indicate that nothing is what it seems. Despite the fact that the scene takes place outdoors, probably on Madrid’s Paseo del Prado—a customary meeting place for that city’s society in the 18th century, when strolling had become a new form of socializing—Goya’s critical intentions extend beyond a mere depiction of courtship.

Here, Goya uses light to draw the eye to what he considers most relevant: the malicious laughter of the two old women (in the print, they are actually pointing their fingers, and wear a rosary that identifies them as procuresses), the woman being courted—the light brings out one side of her face, her breasts, elbow, fan and foot—and the man’s face. These procuresses were intermediaries for prostitution and lascivious communication. The woman who openly exposes herself holds the fan in her left hand, which signifies approach, and turns the tip of her foot outwards in what is identified by a manuscript from 1807 as a vulgar prostitute’s gesture.

Dressed like ladies, these women made contact on the Paseo del Prado and rendered service on the nearby side streets. Here, the man is one of the fashionable fops ridiculed in poetry of that period. A bon vivant, he is actually impoverished, as is confirmed by the drawing’s caption: he hasn’t a penny. The handwritten commentary to Capricho no. 5 at the Museo del Prado clarifies the Enlightenment approach to this scene, insisting on a gender equality quite modern in its conception in light of the traditional blame assigned to women: both their vices stem from the same poor upbringing, and wherever men are perverse, women will be so as well. The young woman in this print is just as intelligent as the dandy who is chatting her up. As for the two old women: each is as vile and detestable as the other. This equality is reflected by the title of Capricho 5, Two of a Kind, which is drawn from a 17th-century proverb, one of whose versions in Spanish translates as: The whore and the thug: two of a kind. The Museo del Prado has a first edition of Capricho 5 (G02093), while the Biblioteca Nacional has a preliminary brush-and-India ink drawing from Album B, 5 or the Madrid Album. There is a state proof prior to the application of aquatint in the Rosenwald collection at the National Gallery in Washington D.C. (257 x 183 mm, H 40. I.1), and there is also a steel-plated copper plate from the same series at Calcografía Nacional in Madrid (200 x 151 mm, 341.64 g. No. 3431). The mark of the plate is visible on the drawing as a result of its tracing on the copper plate (200 x 151 mm), as are vertical laid lines (Text from: Blas, J., Sueño 19. Las viejas se salen de risa porque saben que él no lleva un cuarto, in Matilla, J. M. and Mena Marqués, M. (dir.), Goya: Luces y Sombras, Barcelona: Fundación La Caixa, Barcelona: Obra Social La Caixa-Madrid: Museo Nacional del Prado, 2012, p. 118, no. 16).

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Tal para qual
Wash on laid paper, Mid-XIXcentury
Inventory number
G002093
Author
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de
Title
Two of a Kind
Date
1797 - 1799
Technique
Etching; Aquatint; Drypoint
Support
Ivory laid paper
Dimension
Height: 306 mm.; Width: 201 mm.; Height of the plate mark: 198 mm.; Width of the plate mark: 150 mm.
Series
Caprichos [estampa], 5
Provenance
Bequest of Plácido Arango Arias, 1991.

Bibliography +

Brunet, M.G., Étude sur Francisco Goya. Sa vie et ses travaux. Notice biographique et artistique accompagnée de photographies d’aprés les compositions de ce maitre, Aubry, libraire-éditeur, París, 1865, pp. 31.

Lefort, P., Essai d’un catalogue raisonné de l’oeuvre gravé et lithographié de Francisco de Goya. Première Partie. Pièces publiées en séries. Les Caprices. Nos 1 a 80, Gazette des beaux-arts, IX, 22, 1867, pp. 200-201.

D'Achiardi, P., Les dessins de D. Francisco Goya y Lucientes au Musée du Prado à Madrid. 1ère livraison (Les Caprices), D.Anderson Editeur, Roma, 1908.

Beruete y Moret, A., Goya grabador, III, Blass y Cía, Madrid, 1918, pp. 39.

Adhemar, J., Goya: exposition de l’oeuvre gravé de peintures, de tapisseries et de cent dix dessins du Musée du Prado, Bibliotheques Nationales, París, 1935, pp. 5.

Wight, F.S., The Revulsions of Goya: Subconscious Communications in the Etchings, The Journal of Aesthetics & Art Criticism, V,1, 1946, pp. 1-12.

Klingender, F.D., Goya in the Democratic Tradition, Sidgwick and Jackson Limited, Londres, 1948, pp. 88.

Sánchez Cantón, F.J., Los Caprichos de Goya y sus dibujos preparatorios, Instituto Amatller de Arte Hispánico, Barcelona, 1949, pp. 70-71.

López-Rey, J., Goya’s Caprichos: Beauty, Reason and Caricature, Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1953, pp. 106.

Harris, T., ''Catalogue Raisonné'', en Goya: Engravings and Lithographs, II, Bruno Cassirer, Oxford, 1964, pp. 75, n.40.

Delteil, Loys, Goya. Facs. 1922, Collectors EditionsDa Capo Press, 1969, pp. n. 42.

Gassier, P. & Wilson-Bareau, J, Vie et oeuvre de Francisco de Goya: l' oeuvre complet illustré: peintures, dessins, gravures, Office du Livre, Friburgo, 1970.

Sayre, E., The Changing Image. Prints by Francisco Goya, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 1974, pp. 67-69, n.39-41.

Gassier, P., Dibujos de Goya. Estudios para grabados y pinturas, Noguer, Barcelona, 1975, pp. n. 24-54.

Lafuente Ferrari, Enrique, Los Caprichos de Goya, Gustavo Gili, Barcelona, 1978, pp. 42.

Hohl, H., “Goya als Zeichner und Graphiker”, en W. Hofmann, Goya. Das Zeitalter der Revolutionen., Prestel Verlag; Hamburger Kunsthalle, München, 1980, pp. 275-232.

Lafuente Ferrari, Enrique, Goya: dibujos, Silex, Madrid, 1980, pp. n. 13.

López Vázquez, J. M. B., Los Caprichos de Goya y su interpretación, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago De Compostela, 1982, pp. 49-50.

Helman, Edith, Trasmundo de Goya, Alianza Editorial, Madrid, 1983, pp. 124.

Alcalá Flecha, Roberto, Matrimonio y Prostitucion en el Arte de Goya, Universidad de Extremadura, Cáceres, 1984, pp. 134.

Held, J., Between Bourgeois Enlightenment and Popular Culture: Goya’s Festivals, Old Women, Monsters and Blind Men, History Workshop Journal, 23, 1987, pp. 39-58.

Alcalá Flecha, Roberto, Literatura e ideología en el arte de Goya, Diputación General de Aragón, Zaragoza, 1988, pp. 401-402.

Cela, C.J., Los Caprichos de Francisco de Goya, Sílex, Madrid, 1989, pp. 22-23.

Wilson-Bareau, J., Goya: la década de los Caprichos. Dibujos y aguafuertes, Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando, Madrid, 1992, pp. 118-123.

Blas, J.; Matilla, J. M.; Medrano, J. M., El Libro de los Caprichos: dos siglos de interpretaciones 1799-1999. Catálogo de los dibujos, pruebas de estado, láminas de cobre y estampas de la primera edición, Museo Nacional de Prado, Madrid, 1999, pp. 76-79.

Blas, J; Andioc, R; Centellas, R., Mirar y leer. Los Caprichos de Goya, Diputacion Provincial de Madrid ; Calcografía Nacional; Pontevedra: Museo de Pontevedra, Zaragoza, 1999, pp. 78-79.

Stoichita, V.I; Coderch, A.M., El último carnaval: un ensayo sobre Goya, Siruela, 2000, pp. 169-207, 209-237, 285-307.

Tomlinson, J., Goya: Images of Women, National Gallery of Art, Washington, 2002.

López Vázquez, J.M.B., ''La necesidad de educación y su importancia en los niños y jóvenes en ‘Los Caprichos’ de Goya'', en Homenaje a José García Oro, Universidad de Santiago, Santiago De Compostela, 2002, pp. 489-492.

López Vázquez, J. M. B., “Goya. Sueños y Caprichos”, en Goya y Dalí, Universidad Santiago de Compostela; Fundación Artes, Ribeira, 2004, pp. 203-210.

Bozal, V., Francisco Goya: vida y obra, T.F., Madrid, 2005, pp. 191-230.

Schulz, A., Goya's Caprichos : Aesthetics, Perception, and the Body, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2005.

Cirlot, L., “Comentarios a los Caprichos”, en Caprichos: Francisco de Goya. Estudios, Planeta; Universidad de Zaragoza, Barcelona, 2006, pp. 126-129.

André-Deconchat, S; Assante di Panzillo, M ; Wilson-Bareau, J., ''Catalogue'' , en Goya graveur, Nicolas Chaudun y Paris musées, París, 2008, pp. 194, n. 36.

Araujo Sanchez, C., Goya, La España Moderna, Madrid, pp. 134.

Other inventories +

Inv. Nuevas Adquisiciones (iniciado en 1856). Núm. 2297.

Catálogo Goya, Pierre Gassier y Juliet Wilson. Núm. 459.

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Update date: 23-09-2020 | Registry created on 01-09-2015

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