The itinerary <em>TITULORECORRIDO</em> has been successfully created. Now you can add in works from the Collection browser
<em>TITULOOBRA</em> added to <em>TITULORECORRIDO</em> itinerary

Universal Language. The Author dreaming
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de
Close Continuar a ficha de la obra

Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de

Fuendetodos, Zaragoza (Spain), 1746 - Bordeaux (France), 1828

Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de See author's file

Universal Language. The Author dreaming

1797. Black chalk, Pencil, Iron gall ink on laid paper.
Not on display

International Language is the preparatory drawing for the well-known Capricho 43, The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters, and it bears the marks of having been transferred to the copper plate. The final composition presented here differs from the original idea, whose composition was more confused yet attractive, as its technique reflected the fire of creative passion in the rays of light emerging from the artist’s head as symbols of his imagination. The imaginary figures that constituted his artistic motifs merged with those rays, while Goya himself appears to dominate everything. He is accompanied by various animals, including the donkey that symbolizes ignorance, and other monstrous creatures, along with night birds: bats and owls. Goya depicted himself in the same manner in both drawings and in the etching: seated asleep at his desk, which is more abstractly rendered in the second drawing, presented here. The artist drew on multiple sources of inspiration for the presentation of his figure and position, including J. B. D. Duprée’s engraving after a drawing by Charles Monnet of Jean Jacques Rousseau for the frontispiece of the second volume of the latter’s Philosophie, published in 1793. But Goya’s work more closely resembles the frontispiece from the 1699 edition of Francisco de Quevedo’s Time for All and The Fortune with Brain, whose inscription refers to him as the author of the Dreams the certainly inspired Goya’s Caprichos. In the final etching, Goya modified the lighting. The large illuminated area in the upper left-hand corner of the drawing becomes crepuscular in the etching, and includes the presence of night birds. The desk also changes, becoming the solid block of stone on which the artist inscribes the strange new title: The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters, whose somewhat blurred letters almost seem to have been written in an evanescent thread of smoke, indicating the dream space in which Goya presented his scene. The drawing has two inscriptions, one of which refers to its original numeration as Dream no. 1. This corresponds to Goya’s original idea of calling the series Dreams, following Quevedo’s Dreams, which had been published between 1606 and 1621. Like the latter, Goya used the language of dream images to criticize social vices, beginning with scenes of pure fantasy involving witches, and continuing with more realistic scenes. Here, he has written a title for the print on the front of the desk: Universal Language. Drawn and Engraved by Fco. De Goya, year 1797. This indicates that the scene was originally intended as a frontispiece, and further down, it specifies the entire series’ thematic intentions: The author dreaming. His only intention is to banish prejudicial vulgarities and bear firm witness, with this work of fancy, to the truth. These words refer to the ideas that appear in the 80 plates that make up this work, as does the text of the advertisement published in the Diario de Madrid (February 6, 1799), which presented the Caprichos as "the multitude of quirks and blunders that characterize all civil societies." In the drawing, Goya is surrounded by the dark world that emerges from his dreams and hovers over his head. Toward the bottom, a lynx sits next to his chair in the same position as on the engraving, and it raises it pointy-eared head so that its shiny, attentive eyes stand out, symbolizing, as they did for Cesare Ripa in the early 17th century, visual acuity and, by extension, intellectual subtlety -fantasy’s companion. By the 18th century, the lynx also symbolized Reason, and the analytical gaze of the Enlightenment, which is capable of making the unseen visible [...]. One of the handwritten notations considered contemporary to this work -the one at the Museo del Prado- explains it from a conservative position according to which Goya had dedicated his imagination to the representation of this new and obscure aspect of human nature that lies beyond rational and orderly awareness and that had become irremediably visible following the French Revolution: "Fantasy without reason produces monsters, but with it, it becomes the mother of the arts." Other modern explanations accept that Goya imbued sleeping and dreaming Reason with qualities that were already attributed in the late 18th century to a creative imagination capable of "revealing to the eyes forms and postures that have, until now, only existed in the human mind, obscured and confused by the lack of enlightenment, or heated by unfettered passion." Such was Goya’s explanation in his advertisement for the sale of the Caprichos, and thus, through the world that the social order opened to the artist, he played his role in denouncing human and social vice. Universal Language is rendered with the same meticulous technique as all of the other Dreams, all of which are drawn with pen and iron gall ink. Originally black, they now have a slightly metallic appearance that has gradually attained a grayish chestnut tint. Goya’s refined precision in these preparatory drawings reveals how important it was for him to define each detail, and indeed, he precisely sets out both the scenes and the exact meaning of each. Besides the related works at the Museo del Prado, the Museum of Fine Arts of Boston has a state proof made before the additional etching of Caprichos 43 (etching and aquatint, 292 x 205 mm, no. H 78.I.2), while a steel-plated copper plate from the same series is at Calcografía Nacional in Madrid (218 x 152 mm, no. 3469). The transfer of the drawing’s image to the 217 x 152 mm copper plate has left the plate mark on the paper, which also bears 25 mm laid lines. This drawing appears in Gassier’s catalog of drawings as number II 39 (Text drawn from Mena Marqués, M., Ydioma Universal, in Matilla, J. M. and Mena Marqués, M. (dir.): Goya: Luces y Sombras, Barcelona: Fundación La Caixa, Barcelona: Obra Social La Caixa-Madrid: Museo Nacional del Prado, 2012, pp. 78-81, no. 3).


Technical data

Related artworks

The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters
Pencil, Iron gall ink on laid paper, 1796 - 1797
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de
The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters
Etching, Aquatint on laid paper, 1797 - 1799
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de
Inventory number
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de
Universal Language. The Author dreaming
Black chalk; Pencil; Iron gall ink
Laid paper
Height: 248 mm; Width: 172 mm
Caprichos [dibujo]. Serie Los Sueños, 43, 1
Javier Goya 1828, Madrid; Mariano Goya 1854, Madrid; Valentín Carderera, c. 1861, Madrid; Mariano Carderera 1880; Museo Nacional del Prado, 1886.

Bibliography +

Araujo Sanchez, Ceferino, Goya, La España Moderna, Madrid, 1895, pp. 135.

D'Achiardi, Pierre, Les dessins de D. Francisco Goya y Lucientes au Musée du Prado à Madrid. 1ère livraison (Les Caprices), D.Anderson: Editeur, Roma, 1908.

Sánchez Cantón, Francisco Javier, Sala de los dibujos de Goya, Museo del Prado, Madrid, 1928, pp. 12, n.34.

Adhemar, J., Goya: exposition de l’oeuvre gravé, de peintures, de tapisseries et de cent dix dessins du Musée du Prado, Bibliotheques Nationales, París, 1935, pp. 41.

Hofer, Philipp, Some undescribed states of Goya’s Caprichos, Gazette des Beaux-Arts: courrier européen de l'art et de la curiosité, XXVIII, 1945, pp. 174-175.

Sánchez Cantón, Francisco Javier, Los Caprichos de Goya y sus dibujos preparatorios, Instituto Amatller de Arte Hispánico, Barcelona, 1949, pp. 43, 45 y 87.

Adhémar, Jean, The Caprices of Goya, A.Zwemmer, Fernad Hazan, Londres, 1951.

López-Rey, José, Goya's Caprichos: Beauty, Reason and Caricature, I, Princeton University Press, 1953, pp. 75-77, 80-81, 135-138.

Nordström, Folke, Goya, Saturn and Melancholy. Studies in the Art of Goya, Almqvist and Wiksell, Estocolmo, 1962.

Helman, Edith, Trasmundo de Goya, Revista de Occidente, Madrid, 1963.

Gassier, Pierre y Wilson-Bareau, Juliet, Vie et oeuvre de Francisco de Goya: l' oeuvre complet illustré: peintures, dessins, gravures, Office du Livre, Fribourg, 1970, pp. nº 537.

Sayre, Eleanor, The Changing Image. Prints by Francisco Goya, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (Estados Unidos), 1974, pp. 98-105.

Gassier, Pierre, Dibujos de Goya. Estudios para Grabados y Pinturas, II, Noguer, Barcelona, 1975, pp. 76.

Lafuente Ferrari, Enrique, Los Caprichos de Goya, Gustavo Gili, Barcelona, 1978, pp. 120.

Sayre, Eleanor, Goyas "Spanien, tiden och historien" : en allegori över antagandet av 1812 ars spanska förtattning, Nationalmuseum, Estocolmo, 1980, pp. 7.

Stuffmann, M., Goya. Zeichnungen und Druckgraphik, Stadelschen Kunstinstitut, Frankfurt Am Main, 1981, pp. 64-65.

Sullivan, Edward J., Goya and the Art of His Time, The National Endowment For the Art, Dallas, 1982, pp. 123.

Pita Andrade, José Manuel, Goya y la Constitución de 1812, Ayuntamiento de Madrid, Madrid, 1982, pp. nº 7.

López Vázquez, José Manuel B., Los Caprichos de Goya y su interpretación, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago De Compostela, 1982, pp. 167-176.

Clark, Jane, The Great Eihgteenth Century Exhibition in the National Gallery, The National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne, 1983, pp. 176.

Helman, Edith, Trasmundo de Goya, Alianza Editorial, Madrid, 1983, pp. 167-169.

Goya: nuevas visiones : homenaje a Enrique Lafuente Ferrari, Amigos del Museo del Prado, Madrid, 1987, pp. 197-205.

Quintana, A., Goya y el Espiritu de la Ilustracion, Museo del Prado, Madrid, 1988, pp. 229-231, nº 51.

Goya and the spirit of enlightenment, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 1989, pp. 113.

Nordström, Folke, Goya, Saturno y melancolía: estudios sobre el arte de Goya, Visor, Madrid, 1989, pp. 141-160.

Bozal, Valeriano, “Los Caprichos: el mundo de la noche”, en Francisco de Goya, grabador : instantáneas, Caser: Calcografía Nacional, Madrid, 1992, pp. 25-28.

Mangiante, Paolo Erasmo, Goya e l' Italia, Fratelli Palombi, Roma, 1992, pp. 164 / lám. 244.

Wilson Bareau, Juliet, Goya. La década de los Caprichos, Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando, Madrid, 1992, pp. 9-13.

Bozal, Valeriano, “Goya: imágenes de lo grotesco”, en Art and literature in Spain: 1600-1800 : studies in honour of Nigel Glendinning, Charles Davis & Paul Julian Smith. Tamesis Books, Londres, 1993, pp. 51-52.

Biblioteca Nacional España, Ydioma Universal: Goya en la Biblioteca Nacional, Biblioteca NacionalLunwerg, Madrid, 1996, pp. 152.

Matilla, José Manuel et al., El Libro de los Caprichos: dos siglos de interpretaciones 1799-1999. Catálogo de los dibujos, pruebas de estado, láminas de cobre y estampas de la primera edición, Museo Nacional de Prado, Madrid, 1999, pp. 238-245.

Stoichita, Victor I., Goya : the last carnival, Reaktion Books, Londres, 1999.

Museo Nacional del Prado, Goya: del sueño al capricho: génesis de una serie de estampas, Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid, 1999.

Stoichita, Victor I. y Coderch, Anna Mara, El último carnaval : un ensayo sobre Goya, Siruela, Madrid, 2000, pp. 181-192.

Siglo XVIII: España, el sueño de la razón, Fundación Arte Arte y Ciudadania, Madrid ; Río De Janeiro, 2002, pp. 430.

Jacobs, Helmut C., Der Schlaf der Vernunft : Goyas Capricho 43 in Bildkunst, literatur und musik, Schwabe, Basilea, 2006.

Mena Marqués, Manuela B., La duquesa de Alba "musa de Goya" el mito y la historia, Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid, 2006, pp. 55 / lám. 16.

Mena Marqués, Manuela B., “El sueño de la razón produce monstruos”, en Goya en tiempos de guerra, Goya : en tiempos de guerra, Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid, 2008, pp. 168-169.

Matilla, José Manuel, Estampas españolas de la Guerra de la Independencia: propaganda, conmemoración y testimonio, Universidad de Salamanca, 2008.

Sureda, J. (ed.), Goya e Italia, Fundación Goya en Aragón; Turner, Zaragoza, 2008, pp. 171-175 (V. 2).

Goya en tiempos de guerra, Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid, 2008, pp. 168.

Museo Nacional del Prado, El Museo del Prado: la colección de escultura, artes decorativas y dibujos, Museo Nacional del Prado, 2009.

Goya: luces y sombras. Obras maestras del Museo del Prado, The Yomiuri Shimbun, Tokyo, 2011, pp. 72-73.

Mena Marqués, Manuela B., “Ydioma Universal”, en Goya: luces y sombras, Fundación "la Caixa", Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid, 2012, pp. 78-81.

Maurer, G, 'Los Sueños. El Amor dormido' En:, Mena Marques,Manuela B. Goya en Madrid : cartones para tapices 1775-1794, Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid, 2014, pp. 226-231 [226 f.6.3].

Tomlinson, J.A, 'Other worlds, other states. Superstition and bad dreams' En:, Goya: Order & Disorder, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 2014, pp. 246-257 [248 n.161].

Mc Donald, M., 'Goya's prints among his drawings' En:, Goya. The Witches and Old Women Album, The Courtauld Gallery, Londres, 2015, pp. 30-41 [34 f.15].

Bray, X., 'Portraying the Spanish Enlightenment (1789-1799)' En:, Goya.The Portraits, National Gallery Company, Londres, 2015, pp. 74-105 [104 f.47].

Matilla Rodríguez, José Manuel, Ligereza y atrevimiento. Dibujos de Goya, Fundación Botín, Santander, 2017, pp. 74 n.32.

Matilla, J.M. Mena M.B., Goya: dibujos. Solo la voluntad me sobra, Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid, 2019, pp. 130 nº 59.

Filigree +

Motive: Letra "H C Wend / & / Zoonen"

58 x 115 mm
6 - Verticales
26 mm.
En el centro, entre los corondeles 1 y 6
H.C. Wend & Zoonen
Bibliografía del dibujo, donde se hace referencia a la filigrana: Gassier 1975, vol. 2, p. 76, n. 39; Blas, Matilla y Medrano 1999, p. 240
Las iniciales que aparecen en esta filigrana corresponden al comerciante de papel holandés Hendrik Christiaan Wend (o Went), activo en Ámsterdam desde 1754. No debe extrañar que un comerciante tuviera su propia marca de agua, y no el productor, pues se conocen otros ejemplos coetáneos como el de I.B. Dabyds o el de Daniel Sebille.

La primera noticia documental sobre Hendrik Christiaan Wend es un contrato firmado con el citado Daniel Sebille, fechado el 11 de febrero de 1754, en el que ambos acordaban la fundación de la compañía Sebille & Wend. Daniel Sebille provenía de una importante familia holandesa de comerciantes de papel, y al igual que ellos ejerció el mismo oficio, primero como socio de Wend y desde 1776, junto a Van Ketel y Wassenbergh . Por su lado Wend, después de separarse de Sebille, se asoció con sus hijos bajo el nombre H.C. Wend & Zoonen. Esta compañía consta en el registro de comerciantes de Ámsterdam desde 1776 y en los sucesivos años hasta 1814 .

Heawood, Edward, Watermarks, mainly of the 17th and 18th centuries, Paper Publications Society, Hilversum (Holland), 1950, pp. pl. 500, n. 3735 [año 1790].
Voorn, Henk, De papiermolens in de provincie Noord-Holland, Papierwereld,, Haarlem, 1960, pp. 205, n. 163 [año 1788].
Churchill, William Algernon, Watermarks in paper, in Holland, England, France, etc., in the XVII and XVIII centuries and their interconnection, B. De Graaf, Nieuwkoop, 1985, pp. 201 [D. Sebille & Wend, s.a.].
Voorn, Henk, De papiermolens in de provincie Gelderland, Haarlem Vereniging van Nederlandse Papier- en Kartonfabricken, Haarlem, 1985, pp. 162.
Biblioteca Nacional de España, Catálogo de las estampas de Goya en la Biblioteca Nacional, Biblioteca Nacional, Sociedad Estatal Goya 96 y Lunwerg, Madrid, 1996, pp. 303, n. 19 [D. Sebille & Wend, año h. 1791].

Other inventories +

Catálogo Gassier, 1975. Núm. II 39.

Colección Dibujos Goya (Numeración Sánchez Catón). Núm. 34.

Catálogo Goya, Pierre Gassier y Juliet Wilson. Núm. 537.

Inscriptions +

Dibujado / y Grabado pr. / Fco de Goya a / año 1797
Signed and dated. Front, lower left area

Inscribed. Front, lower left corner

Inscribed in red color. Back, central area

El Autor soñando. / Su yntento solo es desterrar bulgaridades / perjudiciales, y perpetuar con esta obra de / caprichos, el testimonio solido de la verdad
Inscribed. Front, lower central area

Sueño 1º
Inscribed. Front, upper central area

Ydioma univer / sal. Dibujado / y Grabado pr. / Fco de Goya a / año 1797
Inscribed. Front, lower left area

Exhibitions +

Goya. Drawings. "Only my Strength of Will Remains"
20.11.2019 - 16.02.2020

Solo la voluntad me sobra. Dibujos de Francisco de Goya
19.11.2019 - 16.02.2020

Ligereza y atrevimiento. Dibujos de Goya
22.06.2017 - 30.09.2017

Goya: luces y sombras. Obras maestras del Museo del Prado
15.03.2012 - 24.06.2012

Goya: luces y sombras. Obras maestras del Museo del Prado / Goya: Lights and Shadows. Masterpieces of the Museo del Prado
22.10.2011 - 29.01.2012

Goya in Times of War
15.04.2008 - 13.07.2008

Gesichter einer Sammlung - Faces of a Collection
01.04.2006 - 04.09.2006

Goya: la década de los Caprichos
26.10.1992 - 10.01.1993

Update date: 10-08-2022 | Registry created on 28-04-2015

Other works by Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de

Print on demand

Print artworks available in our catalogue in high quality and your preferred size and finish.

Image archive

Request artworks available in our catalogue in digital format.