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Ferdinand VII at an Encampment
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de
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Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de

Fuendetodos, Zaragoza, 1746 - Burdeos, Francia, 1828

Miniatura autor

Ferdinand VII at an Encampment

After 1815. Oil on canvas, 207 x 140 cm.

Several portraits of Ferdinand VII are attributed to Goya, though only a few have sufficient quality to be considered fully his own work. Furthermore, there is no accurate documentation of the portraits of a monarch who chose Vicente López to be the official portraitist over Goya. It is, however, clearly documented that Goya, as first court painter, did an equestrian portrait that was one of the first done of the new king; this portrait was commissioned in 1808 by the Real Academia de San Fernando, which still owns it today. Perhaps Goya, as he had done earlier for the official portraits of Charles IV and María Luisa de Parma, did a life-study of the new king that allowed him -and perhaps his collaborators- to produce the numerous portraits sought from him by institutions and private citizens.

Among the portraits of the new king painted by Goya, the finest is unquestionably the Portrait of Ferdinand VII in Royal Robes (Prado, P735). It is from this portrait (painted after the War of Independence upon the king’s return to Spain) that Goya copied both the head on the Portrait of Fernando VII in a Military Encampment and the position of the king’s legs, although here the king is wearing the uniform of a captain-general, with three gold braids on the cuffs of his jacket and on the royal-red sash.

On his chest, the king wears the ribbon of the Order of the Golden Fleece and the sash and cross of the Order of Charles III. We do not know the exact date this portrait was commissioned by the School of Highway Engineers, from which institution it entered the Museo de la Trinidad. The commission was proffered by Francisco Javier de Mariátegui, chief architect of the City of Madrid and captain of the Corps of Engineers, who would later be the father-in-law of Mariano Goya, the artist’s grandson. Interestingly, in the 1876 catalog of the Prado, where the painting figured for the first time, Pedro de Madrazo notes that the portrait was at the time the property of Mariátegui. The School of Highway Engineers was founded in 1802 by Charles IV; its offices were in El Retiro Palace, but were later moved to the Old Customs House, in the Plaza de Leña, where they remained until 1847. Its first few years were difficult: it ceased to operate during the War of Independence and it closed in 1814, reopening between 1820 and 1823. It would be important to know the exact purpose for which this portrait was painted, in order to explain the scene portrayed in it. Given that it follows the general lines of the portrait of the king in royal robes, which was painted in 1815, it must be of a later date, but during those years there were no military actions that might justify portraying the king in a military encampment. On the other hand, the military nature of the highway engineers, who laid down roads, inspected fortifications (and rebuilt them if necessary), and produced maps, might explain the iconography in the background of the painting, with engineers going about their work. Mariátegui was the captain of engineers from 1815 to 1826, during the reign of Ferdinand VII, and it is probable that the painting was commissioned during the first years he held that post (Mena Marqués, M.: El Greco to Goya. Masterpieces from the Prado Museum, Museo de Arte de Ponce, 2012, p. 129).

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Related artworks

Ferdinand VII in Court Dress
Oil on canvas, 1814 - 1815
Inventory number
P00724
Author
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de
Title
Ferdinand VII at an Encampment
Date
After 1815
Technique
Oil
Support
Canvas
Dimension
High/Height: 207 cm.; Width: 140 cm.
Provenance
Transfer by the Escuela de Ingenieros de Caminos for the Trinidad Museum, 1869. Prado Museum, 1872.

Bibliography +

Viñaza, C. Muñoz y Manzano, Conde de la, Goya. Su tiempo, su vida, sus obras, Manuel G. Hernández, Madrid, 1887, pp. 222, n. XXVI.

Araujo Sánchez, Ceferino, Goya, La España Moderna, Madrid:, 1896, pp. 112, n. 188.

Laurent, J., Catalogue illustrèe des tableaux du Musée du Prado à Madrid, J. Laurent et Cie., Madrid:, 1899, pp. 11, n. 2.164.

Lafond, P., Goya, Librairie de L'Art Ancien et Modern, París:, 1902, pp. 122, n. 52.

Loga, V. von, Francisco de Goya, G. Grote'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, Berlín:, 1903, pp. 189, n. 132.

Calvert, A. F., Goya, John Lane, Londres; Nueva York:, 1908, pp. 126, n. 39.

Beroqui, Pedro (m. 1958), Adiciones y correcciones al catálogo del Museo del Prado, II/I, [s.n.], Valladolid, 1914, pp. 88, n. 724.

Beruete y Moret, Aureliano de, Goya pintor de retratos, I, Blass y Cía., Madrid:, 1916, pp. 130-131; 171, n. 50.

Loga, V. von, Francisco de Goya, G. Grote'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, Berlín:, 1921, pp. 187, n. 132.

Mayer, A. L., Francisco de Goya, F. Bruckmann A. G., Munich:, 1923, pp. 184, n. 159.

Sánchez Cantón, Francisco Javier, Los retratos de los Reyes de España, Omega, Madrid:, 1948, pp. 190.

Desparmet Fitz-Gerald, X., L'oeuvre peint de Goya. Catalogue raisonné, II, F. de Nobele, París, 1950, pp. 213, n. 502.

Troutman, P. (dir.), Goya and his times: Royal Academy Winter Exhibition, 1963-4:, Royal Academy of Arts in London, Londres:, 1963, pp. 62, n. 106.

Held, Jutta, Farbe und licht in Goyas malerei, Walter de Gruyter & Co., Barlín:, 1964, pp. 173, n. 116.

Gassier, Pierre, Vie et oeuvre de Francisco de Goya: l' oeuvre complet illustré: peintures, dessins, gravures, Office du Livre, Friburgo:, 1970, pp. 297, n. 1.539.

Gudiol, José, Goya, 1746-1828: Biografía, estudio analítico y catálogo de sus pinturas, I, Polígrafa, Barcelona, 1970, pp. 361, n. 631.

Museo Nacional del Prado, Museo del Prado: catálogo de las pinturas, Museo del Prado, Madrid:, 1972, pp. 252, n. 724.

Angelis, Rita de, L'Opera Pittorica Completa Di Goya, Rizzoli, Milán, 1974, pp. 128, n. 577.

Gassier, Pierre, Vida y obra de Francisco de Goya: reproducción de su obra completa: pinturas, dibujos y grabados, Juventud, Barcelona, 1974.

Angelis, Rita de, La obra pictórica completa de Goya, Noguer, Barcelona:, 1975, pp. 128, n. 597.

Salas, Xavier de, Goya, Patronato Nacional de Museos, Madrid:, 1977, pp. 134, n. 45.

Salas, Xavier de, Notas a varios retratos de Goya, Academia, 50, 1980, pp. 57.

Camón Aznar, José, Francisco de Goya, IV, Caja de Ahorros de Zaragoza, Aragón y Rioja, Zaragoza, 1982, pp. 35.

Gudiol, José, Goya, 1746-1828: Biographie, Etude Analytique et Catalogue de ses Peintures, I, Ediciones Poligrafa S.A., Barcelona, 1984, pp. 118, n. 612.

Museo Nacional del Prado, Museo del Prado: catálogo de las pinturas, Museo del Prado, Madrid, 1985, pp. 265-266, n. 724.

Moreno de las Heras, M., Fernando VII in an Encampment. En: Goya and the spirit of enlightenment, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 1988, pp. 265-266, n. 119.

Moreno de las Heras, M., Fernando VII en un campamento. En: Goya y el espíritu de la Ilustración, Museo del Prado, Madrid, 1988, pp. 366-369, n. 119.

Baticle, Jeannine, Un même regard sur le roi et l'enfant Goya portratiste, Connaissance des Arts, 1988, pp. 92.

Baticle, Jeannine, Goya, Fayard, París, 1992, pp. 407.

Morales y Marín, José Luis, Goya. Catalogo de la Pintura, Academia de Bellas Artes de San Luis, Zaragoza, 1994, pp. 324, n. 446.

Baticle, Jeannine, Goya, Grijalbo Mondadori, Barcelona, 1995, pp. 277.

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Luna, J. J., Moreno de las Heras, M. (dir.), Goya: 250 Aniversario, Museo del Prado, Madrid, 1996, pp. 48; 413-414, n. 144.

Moreno de las Heras, M., Goya: pinturas del Museo del Prado, Museo del Prado, Madrid, 1997, pp. 291-292, n. 103.

Bozal, Valeriano, Francisco Goya. Vida y obra, II, TF Editores, Madrid:, 2005, pp. 153-154.

Mena Marqués, M. B., ''Fernando VII, ante un campamento'', en Barón, J. (dir.) El retrato español en el Prado. Del Greco a Sorolla, Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid:, 2007, pp. 64-65, n. 4.

Luna, J. J., ''Guerra y pintura en las colecciones del Museo del Prado. Desde el siglo XVI a Goya'', en Cabañas Bravo, M; López-Yarto Elizalde, A. y Rincón García, W. (coords.): Arte en tiempos de guerra, Instituto de Historia, CSIC, Madrid:, 2009, pp. 25.

Mena Marqués, M. B., Fernando VII en un campamento. En: Del Greco a Goya. Obras maestras del Museo del Prado, Museo de Arte de Ponce, Puerto Rico, 2012, pp. 72-73.

La Monarquía Hispánica en el Arte, Instituto Nacional de Bellas Artes y Literatura, Méjico, 2013, pp. 310 n.95.

Other inventories +

Inv. Nuevas Adquisiciones (desde 1856). Núm. 257.
Autor = don Francisco Goya / 257. Lienzo = retrato del rey don Fernando VII. / Alto 2,07 ancho 1,44 (fig. cº entº) / Remitido p.r la escuela de ingenieros de caminos y admitido por Or.n de 24 de mayo de 1869

Catálogo Museo del Prado, 1872-1907. Núm. 2164.

Catálogo Goya, Pierre Gassier y Juliet Wilson. Núm. 1539.

Exhibitions +

Yo, el Rey. La Monarquía Hispánica en el arte
México D.F.
01.07.2015 - 18.10.2015

From El Greco to Goya: Masterpieces from the Museo del Prado
Ponce, Puerto Rico
25.03.2012 - 16.07.2012

Del Greco a Goya: Obras maestras del Museo del Prado. Puerto Rico
Ponce
22.03.2012 - 16.07.2012

El retrato español en el Prado. De Goya a Sorolla
La Coruña
11.06.2008 - 07.09.2008

El retrato español en el Prado. De Goya a Sorolla
Toledo
12.03.2008 - 25.05.2008

El retrato español en el Prado. De Goya a Sorolla
Salamanca
18.12.2007 - 24.02.2008

El retrato español en el Prado. De Goya a Sorolla
Murcia
03.10.2007 - 02.12.2007

El retrato español en el Prado. De Goya a Sorolla
Valencia
12.06.2007 - 02.09.2007

El retrato español en el Prado. De Goya a Sorolla<br />
Bilbao
05.03.2007 - 20.05.2007

Intercambio con la Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando
Madrid
27.10.2006 - 23.02.2007

Goya y el Espíritu de la Ilustración
Nueva York NY
09.05.1989 - 16.07.1989

Goya y el Espíritu de la Ilustración
Boston
18.01.1989 - 26.03.1989

Goya y el Espíritu de la Ilustración
Madrid
04.10.1988 - 18.12.1988

Location +

Room 075 (On Display)

Update date: 18-05-2016 | Registry created on 28-04-2015

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