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The Tobacco Guards
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de
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Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de

Fuendetodos, Zaragoza, 1746 - Burdeos, Francia, 1828

Miniatura autor

The Tobacco Guards

1780. Oil on canvas, 262 x 137 cm.

In October 1777, Goya received a commission to paint 20 cartoons for tapestries intended to decorate the walls of the Prince and Princess of Asturias´s bedchamber and its anteroom in the palace of El Pardo, north of Madrid, while he was completing designs of other tapestries for their dining room. This would be the third set of cartoons commissioned from the young Goya and proposed by Anton Raphael Mengs, first painter to the king and director of the decoration of his palaces. The artist was charged with creating original compositions depicting the contemporary life of Madrid and its surrounding areas. Goya had to rework some of the initial cartoons due to complaints from the weavers at the Royal Tapestry Manufactory regarding the variety of colours he had used, as they found it impossible to translate onto the tapestry the same richness and nuances of colour.The tobacco guards, from this series, entered the Prado from the repository of cartoons in the Royal Palace in Madrid. Goya depicted extraordinarily varied subjects, including washerwomen, vendors, bullfighters, people at play, street musicians, children, and other characters, to represent the life of common folk in Enlightenment-era Spain, bringing together diverse social classes in accordance with the political outlook of Charles III. The artist delivered this cartoon on 24 January 1779 and described the scene simply in his invoice, although the image itself reveals a critical tone that is not apparent in the artist´s words: It represents five tobacco guards, two seated, at rest and one standing, engaged in conversation with them. Situated apart from them, there are two others, surveying the area, on a riverbank; two are seen with the weapons they typically carry .In eighteenth-century Spain, the State had a monopoly on trade in tobacco. Imported from Havana, it was made into cigarettes and snuff in the Royal Tobacco Factory in Seville, and then distributed to other parts of Spain. The shipments traversed dangerous areas, such as the mountainous regions separating Andalusia from Castile, where bandits and smugglers often seized the valuable cargo. The high price of tobacco in Spain encouraged smugglers from Portugal and Gibraltar, against whom the tobacco guards kept watch. Nevertheless, in the struggle against banditry and smuggling, at times the guards in charge of pursuing outlaws or protecting shipments worked in collusion with the criminals, a subject of interest in popular literature of the time, which viewed law enforcers as rather ineffective.With its arrogant masculine protagonists, The tobacco guards -like the cartoon from the same series depicting a training fight with a young bull for novice bullfighters, The Young Bulls (P787)- stands in contrast to the scenes featuring female figures, such as The washerwomen (P786) and The swing (P785), which hung in the same room opposite the tapestries featuring men. In this painting, Goya presents the swaggering tobacco guards in a not terribly reassuring light, with their comfortable travelling uniforms and weapons that recall the appurtenances of smugglers. Their facial expressions, described realistically, are also not very reassuring and perfectly capture their different personalities. The guard who is standing smiles puckishly, directing the viewer´s gaze with his hand to what his companion in the foreground is up to, furtively hiding something, it would seem, under his jerkin, and we can only imagine that it is some stolen tobacco. The guard in the background appears to be watching, complicitous. Goya returned to the theme of the corrupt tobacco guards in the eleventh etching from the Caprichos series, Lads making ready (Muchachos al avío), a satire against smugglers and their proximity to defenders of the law (Mena, M.: Portrait of Spain. Masterpieces from the Prado, Queensland Art Gallery-Art Exhibitions Australia, 2012, p. 180).

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Technical data

Inventory number
P00788
Author
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de
Title
The Tobacco Guards
Date
1780
Technique
Oil
Support
Canvas
Dimension
High/Height: 262 cm.; Width: 137 cm.
Serie
Antedormitorio de los Príncipes de Asturias, Palacio de El Pardo, Madrid, 1777-80 (3)
Provenance
Royal Collection (Entregado a la Real Fábrica de Tapices de Santa Bárbara, Madrid, el 24 de enero de 1780. Transferido entre 1856-1857 al Palacio Real de Madrid, sótanos del oficio de tapicería). Entered the Prado Museum by royal orders, 18.1 and 9.2., 1870.

Bibliography +

Cruzada Villaamil, Gregorio, Los tapices de Goya, [s.n.], Madrid, 1870, pp. 31; 133, n. XXIV.

Museo Nacional del Prado, Catálogo de los cuadros del Museo del Prado de Madrid, [s.n.], Madrid, 1876, pp. 385, nºXXIV.

Viñaza, C. Muñoz y Manzano, Conde de la, Goya: su tiempo, su vida, sus obras, Manuel G. Hernández, Madrid, 1887, pp. 316, n. 24.

Araujo Sánchez, C., Goya, La España Moderna, Madrid, 1896, pp. 91, n. 24.

Museo Nacional del Prado, Catalogue illustré des tableaux du Musée du Prado á Madrid, J. Laurent et Cie, Madrid, 1899, pp. 23, n. XXIV.

Lafond, P., Goya, Librairie de L'Art Ancien et Modern, París, 1902, pp. 146, n. 24.

Loga, V. von, Francisco de Goya, G. Grote'sche, Berlín, 1903, pp. 220, n. 559.

Calvert, A.F., Goya, John Lane, Londres-Nueva York, 1908, pp. 173, n. 24.

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Beruete y Moret, A., Goya, composiciones y figuras, II, Blass y Cía, Madrid, 1916, pp. 46, n. 24; 163, n. 77.

Museo Nacional del Prado, Catálogo de los cuadros del Museo del Prado, [s.n.], Madrid, 1920, pp. 158, n. 788.

Loga, V. von, Francisco de Goya, G. Grote'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, Berlín, 1921, pp. 218, n. 559.

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Desparmet Fitz-Gerald, X., L'oeuvre peint de Goya: catalogue raisonné., I, F. De Nobele, París, 1950, pp. 83, n. 24.

Sánchez Cantón, Francisco Javier, Vida y obras de Goya, Editorial Peninsular, Madrid, 1951, pp. 18, 166.

Nordström, F., Goya, Saturn and Melancholy. Studies in the Art of Goya, Almqvist & Wiksell, Estocolmo, 1962, pp. 28.

Helman, E., Trasmundo de Goya, Revista de Occidente, 1963, pp. 98-102.

Held, Jutta, Farbe und licht in Goyas malerei, Walter de Gruyter & Co., Berlín, 1964, pp. 176, n. 154.

Gudiol, José, Goya, 1746-1828: Biografía, estudio analítico y catálogo de sus pinturas, Polígrafa, Barcelona, 1970, pp. 249, n. 91.

Gassier, Pierre, Vie et oeuvre de Francisco de Goya: l' oeuvre complet illustré: peintures, dessins, gravures, Office du Livre, Friburgo, 1970, pp. 89, n. 136.

Held, Jutta, Die Genrebilder der Madrider Teppichmanufaktur und die Anfange Goyas, Gebr.Mann Verlag, Berlin, 1971, pp. 43.

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Angelis, Rita de, L'Opera Pittorica Completa Di Goya, Rizzoli, Milán, 1974, pp. 96, n. 94.

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Mena Marqués, Manuela B., El resguardo de tabacos / Die Tabakzöllner. En: Goya: prophet der moderne, Dumont, Köln, 2005, pp. 86, n. 5.

Mena Marqués, M. B., El resguardo de tabacos (La dogana dei tabucchi). En: Omaggio a Capodimonte: da Caravaggio a Picasso, Electa, Nápoles, 2007, pp. 80, n. 31.

Vega, Jesusa, Goya, la Real Fábrica de Santa Bárbara y el arte de la tapicería. En: De Amberes a Madrid: la obra de Carlos de Amberes y los tapiceros Vandergoten-Stuyck, Fundación Carlos de Amberes. Pabellón de Bélgica, 2008, pp. 144.

Albarrán, V., 'Divertimentos.La bravura del Majo' En:, Mena Marques,Manuela B. Goya en Madrid : cartones para tapices 1775-1794, Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid, 2014, pp. 110-115 [112, 114, f.2.25 f.2.27].

Other inventories +

Inv. Cartones para Tapices. Núm. 5753.
5753 5./ dos jaques [contrabandistas], el uno sentado, a su lado en el suelo un trabuco, el otro de pié con una charpa de pistolas, detras de ellos otros tres conversando. ancho 1,37 alto 2,62.

Catálogo Goya, Pierre Gassier y Juliet Wilson. Núm. 136.

Exhibitions +

Goya in Madrid
Madrid,
28.11.2014 - 03.05.2015

Portrait of Spain. Masterpieces from the Prado
Houston
16.12.2012 - 31.03.2013

Portrait of Spain. Masterpieces from the Prado
Houston TX
15.12.2012 - 31.03.2013

Portrait of Spain. Masterpieces from the Prado
Brisbane
22.07.2012 - 04.11.2012

Portrait of Spain. Masterpieces from the Prado
Brisbane, Australia,
21.07.2012 - 04.11.2012

De Rembrandt a Picasso. Omaggio a Capodimonte
Nápoles
23.10.2007 - 20.01.2008

Goya - Profeta de la Modernidad (Berlín / Viena)
Viena
18.10.2005 - 29.01.2006

Goya - Profeta de la Modernidad (Berlín / Viena)
Berlín
12.07.2005 - 03.10.2005

Location +

Room 091 (On Display)

Expuesto
Update date: 19-09-2016 | Registry created on 28-04-2015

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