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Goya. Light and Shade

CaixaForum Barcelona CaixaForum Barcelona 16.03.2012 - 24.06.2012

The exhibition numbers 96 works, comprising 27 oil paintings, 44 drawings, 23 prints and 2 preparatory cartoons. They include works such as The clothed Maja, The Parasol, Witches’ Flight and I am still learning, meaning that for the first time in thirty years a large and outstanding selection of Goya’s work from the Museo del Prado will be presented in Catalonia.The richness of the Prado’s holdings of Goya, which can almost be described as a separate museum within the Museum, allows for major exhibitions that fully reflect his oeuvre. A chronological presentation will reveal all the facets of Goya’s art and the principal phases of his career. The exhibition ranges from his early years, in which his realist style contrasted with the elaborate Rococo of his contemporaries, up to the highly personal works produced in Bordeaux at the end of his life and encompasses the drama of the Peninsular War that marked a turning point in his career.The exhibition is structured into fifteen self-sufficient sections that constitute short visual accounts which analyse many of the principal themes that recur throughout the artist’s oeuvre and reflect the social reality of the times in which Goya lived, defined by the monarchy and aristocracy and by intellectuals and friends of the artist.

Curators:
Manuela Mena, Museo Nacional del Prado Senior Curator Eighteenth-century Painting and José Manuel Matilla, Museo Nacional del Prado Head of Department Drawings and Prints

Opening time

From Monday to Friday,10am - 8pm. Saturday, Sunday and holidays 10am - 9pm. Tuesday and Thursday opens until 10pm

Co-organizer by:
Obra social Fundación La Caixa

Multimedia

Exhibition

This is how I am. Self-portraits

This is how I am. Self-portraits
Self-Portrait
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de
Oil on canvas, 18,2 x 12,2 cm, 1795
Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado

The exhibition opens with an analysis of Goya’s self-portraits given that he was one of only a small group of artists within western art to repeatedly use his own image throughout his life as a symbol of the pride of the artist, as a vehicle for psychological analysis and as a manifesto of his ideas. This section includes a letter from Goya to his friend Martín Zapater in which he includes a caricature of himself with protruding lower lip, resulting in a haughty expression that also reflects the artist’s satirical, liberated spirit.

Lies and Infidelity. From the image of woman in the Sanlúcar Album to the private cabinet

Lies and Infidelity. From the image of woman in the Sanlúcar Album to the private cabinet
The Clothed Maja
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de
Oil on canvas, 95 x 190 cm. 1800 - 1808
Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado

The third section of the exhibition analyses the image of woman in Goya’s paintings and in his albums of prints and drawings. Among the startling and extremely modern images is Young Woman sweeping in which the figure becomes the absolute protagonist in a new way. This section also includes four canvases, including The straw Manikin and The clothed Maja, one of the maja figures in which Goya reflected on erotic provocation through paintings intended for private display only.

Caricatures, Dreams and Caprices. Freedom and self-censorship in the creative process of the Caprichos

Caricatures, Dreams and Caprices. Freedom and self-censorship in the creative process of the Caprichos
Preparatory drawing for Capricho 13. Sueño 25. Dream of some men who were eating us up
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de
Ink on paper, 24.3 x 16.7 cm 1796-1797
Madrid. Museo Nacional del Prado

This section brings together four drawings and three prints from the Caprichos series, created at a crucial moment in Goya’s life when he lost his hearing as the result of a serious illness in 1793. He consequently turned to the creation of drawings and prints that involved an element of critique, denouncing the vices and abuses prevailing in the society of his day.

Scenes of Asses. Satires on human behaviour in the Caprichos

Scenes of Asses. Satires on human behaviour in the Caprichos
Preparatory drawing for Capricho 42. Thou who canst not
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de
Watercolour, 24.2 x 16.6 cm 1797 - 1798
Madrid. Museo Nacional del Prado

The fifth section of the exhibition comprises a group of three prints and two drawings of scenes of asses that form part of the Caprichos series. In these works Goya replaced human figures with traditionally ignorant asses, which he endowed with human attributes in order to present them with a critical meaning.

Social critique in the tapestry cartoons

Social critique in the tapestry cartoons
The Parasol
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de
Oil on canvas, 104 x 152 cm. 1777
Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado

The next section consists of seven tapestry cartoons on picturesque subjects from everyday life that were designs for tapestries for the Prince’s dining room in the palace of El Pardo, produced by Goya for the Santa Bárbara Tapestry Manufactory. They include the cartoon known as The Parasol, which is totally innovative in its design in the context of Spanish decorative art, marking a move from solely picturesque themes to scenes involving an element of social critique in a way that characterises all of Goya’s output.

From the monarch downward. The portrait as psychological study

From the monarch downward. The portrait as psychological study
Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de
Oil on canvas, 205 x 133 cm. 1798
Madrid. Museo Nacional del Prado

The seventh section of the exhibition brings together eight canvases in which Goya reveals himself as a great portraitist and demonstrates the importance that he placed on conveying the inner personality of his sitters. In addition to bringing him fame and wealth, Goya’s portraits allowed him to study and paint human nature in all its variety (in a way comparable to Velázquez) through his depictions of a wide range of men and women of different social classes. Among the works on display are the portraits of Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos(1798) and Charles IV in red (1789)

Fatal Consequences. Goya’s tragic gaze

Fatal Consequences. Goya’s tragic gaze
Dead Birds
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de
Oil on canvas,46 cm x 64 cm. 1808 - 1812
Madrid. Museo Nacional del Prado

This section includes prints from the Disasters of War series and related drawings in which Goya offers a remarkably critical and innovative reflection on events that took place during the Peninsular War (1810-14). Death becomes the undisputed protagonist in these works, among them the oil painting entitled Dead Birds (1806).

Infernal gatherings. Witchcraft and irrationality in the Caprichos

Infernal gatherings. Witchcraft and irrationality in the Caprichos
Witches' Flight
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de
Oil on canvas, 43,5 x 30,5 cm. Ca. 1798
Madrid. Museo Nacional del Prado

The sixth section focuses on three prints from the Caprichos and a related drawing, in this case depicting powerful scenes of witches through which Goya criticised irrationality and superstition, aligning himself with contemporary intellectuals. This section also includes a small but exquisite canvas entitled Witches’ Flight (1797).

A spectacle of misfortune. The critical vision of the Tauromaquia

A spectacle of misfortune. The critical vision of the Tauromaquia
Amateur Bullfight
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de
Oil on canvas, 259 x 136 cm. 1780
Madrid. Museo Nacional del Prado

The ninth section includes four drawings, two prints and the oil painting The Young Bulls (1779-1780), all reflecting the critical vision that Goya offered in the Tauromaquia. This was his third print series and was a commercial failure despite its formal and technical complexity due to the fact that the artist omitted the more light-hearted and picturesque aspects of the bullfight in order to emphasise its tragic, violent side.

Nightmares. Madness and the irrational in the Album C drawings

In the tenth section visitors will see three drawings from Album C that Goya executed during and after the Peninsular War and which exemplify the complexity of his work. In the manner of dreams, these images present burlesque scenes of grotesque beings, offering a faithful reflection of Spain at this period.

Piety and Punishment. Images of religiosity and criticismImages of religiosity and criticism

Piety and Punishment. Images of religiosity and criticismImages of religiosity and criticism
Saint John the Baptist as a Child in the Desert
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de
Oil on canvas, 112 x 82 cm. 1810 - 1812
Madrid. Museo Nacional del Prado

The eleventh section focuses on different aspects of Goya as a religious artist. Saints Justa and Rufina(1817) and The young Saint John the Baptist in the Desert (ca.1810) indicate the importance of works of this type within his oeuvre, in contrast to previous art-historical opinion. Visitors can also see drawings from Album C that reveal a critical vision of religious intransigence as represented by the Inquisition.

Light in the Darkness. Vision of a mad world

Light in the Darkness. Vision of a mad world
Disparate 13. Way of flying
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de
Etching. 24,4 x 35,3 cm. 1815-1816 
Madrid. Museo Nacional del Prado

The twelfth section of the exhibition includes prints and related drawings from the Disparates series (1816-1819), which offer a faithful reflection of the historical context of the time and of Goya’s own life after the Peninsular War. Like the Black Paintings, they reveal the first signs of Goya’s absolute modernity and are in every way the consequence of the absolute power of his imagination.

Grotesque Fables. Human follies and animal dreams in the Bordeaux Album GGrotesque Fables. Human follies and animal dreams in the Bordeaux Album G

This section features five drawings from Album G, produced in Bordeaux between 1824 and 1828. Now in his eighties, Goya started to use the innovative medium of lithographic crayon rather than the ink washes that he had previously deployed. One example of this new technique is the drawing The Butterfly Bull, acquired by the Prado in 2007.

Amusement and Violence. Images of the human condition from the Bordeaux Album H

The penultimate section of the exhibition consists of five drawings from Album H, the second of Goya’s album from his Bordeaux years, in which he combined a depiction of daily life on the streets of Bordeaux with allegorical representations of the human condition. In these works Goya took another step forward, using more sketchy strokes expressed through an almost abstract technique. The subject matter is one again scenes of popular amusement in which the artist offered a critique of the continuing existence of the poor and marginalised, despite social progress. They are the principal subjects of these images.

I am still learning

I am still learning
Self-Portrait
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de
Oil on canvas. 45,8 x 35,6 cm. 1815
Madrid. Museo Nacional del Prado

The final section of the exhibition finds Goya in Bordeaux at the end of his life, reflected in the images of old age that he produced at this time. The section starts with his Self-portrait of 1815, while notable works include the drawing I am still learning (1824-1828) and the letter to Joaquín María Ferrer, written by the 78-year-old Goya from Bordeaux in which he refers to his desire that his art should continue to evolve.

Artworks

1

Letter by Goya to Martín Zapater [2 August 1794?]

Ink on paper, 208 x 153 mm

3

Preparatory drawing for Capricho 43 &quot;Sueño 1. Universal Language. Drawn and engraved by Francisco de Goya in the year 1797. The author dreaming. His only intention is to banish harmful common bekiefs and to perpetuate with this work of caprichos the sound testimony of truth

Pencil and ink on paper, 24.7 x 17.2 cm

1797

14

Concert. Album B, 27

Watercolour and Indian Ink on paper, 23.5 x 14.5 cm 1796 -

1797

15

Group of majas on the paseo. Album B, 28

Watercolour and Indian Ink on paper, 23.5 x 14.5

cm 1796 - 1797

18

Preparatory drawing for Capricho 5] Sueño 19. The old women laugh themselves sick because they know he hasn't a bean

Watercolour and Indian ink on paper, 24.5 x 18.5 cm 1797 - 1798

19

Capricho 61. Volavérunt

Watercolour, 21.7 x 15.2 cm 1797 – 1798 / 1799 (first proof)

20

The Witches’ Flight

Watercolour on paper, 20.5 x 13.3 cm 1797 - 1798

22

Capricho 26. They already have a seat

Watercolour, 21.7 x 15.2 cm 1797 – 1798 / 1799

(first edition)

24

Merry caricature. Album B, 63

Watercolour and Indian ink on paper, 23.2 x 14.2 cm 1796 - 1797

25

She is waiting for him to come. Album B, 64

Watercolour and Indian ink on paper, 23.2 x 14.2

cm 1796 - 1797

26

Preparatory drawing for Capricho 13. Sueño 25. Dream of some men who were eating us up

Ink

on paper, 24.2 x 16.7 cm 1797 - 1798

27

Capricho 13. They are hot

Etching, 21.6 x 15.4 cm 1797 - 1798

28

Capricho 13. They are hot

Etching, 21.6 x 15.4 cm 1797 – 1798 / 1799 (first

edition)

29

Sueño 6. Proclamation of witches banning those under thirty however great their merit may be

Ink on paper, 23.1 x 15.3 cm 1797 - 1798

30

Preparatory drawing not executed in print. Proclamation of witches

Red watercolour on paper, 20 x 13.5 cm 1797 - 1798

31

Capricho 69. Blow

Watercolour, 21.3 x 14.8 cm 1797 – 1798 / 1799 (second

edition)

32

Capricho 37. What if the pupil knows more?

Etching and watercolour, 21.5 x 15.3 cm

1797 - 1798

33

Preparatory drawing for Capricho 39. As far back as his grandfather

Watercolour on paper, 21.2

x 15.8 cm 1797 – 1798

34

Capricho 39. As far back as his grandfather.

Etching, 21.5 x 15 cm 1797 – 1798 / 1799

(second edition)

35

Capricho 38. Brabisimo

Etching, 21.7 x 15.1 cm 1797 – 1798 / 1799 (first

edition)

36

Preparatory drawing for Capricho 42. Thou who canst not

Watercolour, 24.2 x 16.6 cm

1797 - 1798

38

Capricho 64. Bon voyage

Watercolour, 21.7 x 15.2 cm 1797 - 1798

39

Capricho 59. And still they don't go!

Watercolour, 21.5 x 15.2 cm 1797 -

1798

40

Sueño 2. Witches Rehearsal

Etching, 21.4 x 15.1 cm 1797 - 1798

41

Capricho 62. Blowers

Etching, 20.7 x 15.1 cm 1797 – 1798 / 1799 (first

edition)

50

Preparatory drawing for Desastre 55. The worst is to beg

Pencil on paper, 17 x 21.8

cm c. 1812

51

Desastre 55. The worst is to beg

Etching, 15.5 x 20.6 cm

1810 – 1815 / 1863 (first edition)

52

Preparatory drawing for Desastre 44. I saw this

Pencil on paper, 17.7 x 23.4 cm 1810 -

1815

53

Preparatory drawing for Desastre 50. Unhappy mother!

Paper, 17 x 21.9 cm c.

1813

54

Desastre 11. They don’t want to

Etching, 16.1 x 21.1 cm 1810 – 1815 / 1863 (first

edition)

55

Desastre 9. They don’t want to

Etching, 15.5 x 20.5 cm 1810- 1815 / 1863 (first

edition)

56

Desastre 64. Carriot to the cementery

Etching, 15.5 x 20.6 cm 1810 – 1815 / 1863 (first

edition)

58

Desastre 22. This and more

Etching, 16 x 25 cm 1810 – 1815 / 1863 (first

edition)

59

Desastre 18. Bury and be quiet

Paper, 16 x 23.5 cm 1810 – 1815 / 1863 (first

edition)

61

Preparatory drawing for Tauromaquia. Another madness of his [Martincho's] in the same ring

Paper, 18.7 x 31.4 cm 1815

62

Preparatory drawing for Tauromaquia 27. The celebrated picador, Fernando del Toro, inciting the wild beast with his pique

Watercolour on paper, 18.7 x 31.7 cm 1815 - 1816

63

Preparatory drawing for Tauromaquia B. Horse thrown by a bull

Paper, 18.8 x 31.8

cm 1815

64

auromaquia 12. Weakening of the rabble with spears and other weapons

Etching, 25 x 35

cm 1816 (first edition)

65

Preparatory drawing for Tauromaquia 21. Dreadful incidents which occured in the front rows of the ring at Madrid, and death of the mayor of Torrejon

Paper, 18.5 x 30 cm 1815 - 1816

66

Tauromaquia 21. Dreadful incidents which occured in the front rows of the ring at Madrid, and death of the mayor of Torrejon

Etching, 24.5 x 35.5 cm 1816 (first edition)

67

Another [Vision] in the Same Night. Album C, 40

Watercolour and ink on paper, 20.5 x 14.1

cm 1803 - 1824

68

The Third [Vision] in the Same [Night]. Album C, 41

Watercolour and ink on paper, 20.5 x 14.1

cm 1803 - 1824

69

The Fifth [Vision]. Album C, 43

Watercolour and ink on paper, 20.5 x 14.2 cm 1803 -

1824

73

Dreams of a novice Witch

Paper, 21 x 16.6 cm

75

It's better to die. Album C, 103

Watercolour and ink on paper, 20.4 x 14.2 cm 1808 -

1814

76

For discovering the motion of the earth. Album C, 94

Watercolour and ink on paper, 20.5 x 14.4

cm 1808-1814

77

Disparate 13. Way of flying

Etching, 24.5 x 36 cm 1816 - 1819

78

Falling Demon

Watercolour on paper, 22 x 32.5 cm c. 1819

79

Preparatory drawing for Disparate 15. Clear folly

Watercolour on paper, 23.7 x 32.5

cm c. 1815

80

Disparate 15. Clear folly

Watercolour, etching, 24.5 x 35.5 cm 1816 - 1819

81

Two figures pointing to a bright opening

Watercolour on paper, 22.2 x 31.6 cm c.

1819

82

Great folly. Album G, 9

Pencil on paper, 19.2 x 15.2 cm 1824 - 1828

83

Bad dream. Album G, a.

Pencil on paper, 19.1 x 15.1 cm 1824 - 1828

84

They spend their life with animals. Album G, 30

Pencil on paper, 19.2 x 14.8 cm 1824

- 1828

87

Monk guzzling from a large bowl. Album H, 63

Pencil on paper, 19 x 15.1 cm 1824 -

1828

89

Telegraph. Album H, 54

Pencil on paper, 19.1 x 15.2 cm 1825 - 1828

90

The enema. Album H, 42

Pencil on paper, 19 x 15.5 cm 1824 - 1828

91

Two big men fighting desperately. Album H, 38

Pencil on paper, 19 x 15.4 cm 1824 -

1828

93

Desastre 1. Sad premonitions

Pencil on paper, 17 x 21.8 cm c. 1812

95

Disparate 18. Funeral Folly

Etching, 24.5 x 35 cm 1816 - 1819 / 1863 [First

edition]

96

Disparate 12. Merry Folly

Etching, 24.5 x 35 cm 1816 - 1819 / 1863 [First

edition]

97

Two old peseant women dancing. Álbum H, 35

Pencil on paper, 19 x 14.8 cm 1824 -

1828

99

Letter to Joaquín Ferrer. 20 December 1825

Pen, dark ink, 253 x 196

mm 1825

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